Information about National Academies report: Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census

On September 14, 2006, the National Research Council of the National Academies released its report Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census. The report was prepared at the request of the Census Bureau and was written by the Panel on Residence Rules in the Decennial Census and edited by Daniel L. Cork and Paul R. Voss.

One major problem the panelists addressed was the subject addressed on this website, how prisoners should be counted in the decennial census. The report found that the "evidence of political inequities in redistricting that can arise due to the counting of prisoners at the prison location is compelling."

This page contains links to the National Research Council's report and many of the key materials they relied on to make their recomendations.

The report

National Academies report thumbnail

Prison Policy Initiative submissions to the panel

Selected Prison Policy Initiative reports cited by the National Academies in their report

Selected coverage of the report

Selected previous reports from the National Academies

Last update to this page: November 19, 2016

Tweet this page Follow @PrisonPolicy on Twitter Get our newsletter Donate


  • May 15, 2018:
    Our Policy Analyst Lucius Couloute will be at the LEDA Summit on Race and Inclusion in Holland, Michigan, presenting his research on the challenges and disadvantages people face when they are released from prison. Tickets are available on LEDA’s website.

Not near you?
Invite us to your city, college or organization.