Quick-reference chart: States' legislation ending prison gerrymandering.

Over 10 states have now passed legislation to end various aspects of prison gerrymandering, and each charts a slightly different path to achieving that goal. We put together this quick-reference chart to help advocates sift through the substantive (but not always substantial) differences between the states' laws:

—Aleks Kajstura
last updated September 22, 2021

Does the legislation address:
State Legislative history Statutory reference Congressional districts? State legislative districts? County government districts? City/Town council districts? School Board districts? Is the legislative solution mandatory? What types of facilities are covered by the legislation? How does the state count people with unknown or out-of-state addresses?
Sample Model Legislation Model Statute No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes State, Federal Counts at-large
California AB 420 (2011)
AB 1986 (2012)
AB 2172 (2018)
AB 849 (2019)
Cal. Elec. Code § 21003 (general provisions), § 21500 (counties), § 21601 (general law cities), and § 21621 (chartered cities) Yes Yes Yes Yes No Congressional - Yes (AB 420)
State - Citizens Redistricting Commission votes to adopt legislative recommendation (AB 420)
Counties - Yes (AB 849)
Cities/Towns - Yes (AB 849)
State Counts at-large
Colorado HB 20-1010 (2020)
SB 02-007 (2002)
HB 04-1230 (2004)
Colo. Rev. Stat. § 2-2-902; § 2-2-901; § 30-10-306 (1), (2), (4); § 30-10-306.7; § 22-31-105(2) and (7)(a); § 22-31-109; § 22-31-110(1)(b); and § 22-31-105(6.5) Yes Yes Yes No Yes Congressional - Contested, the Congressional Commission voted not to use the adjusted data (HB 20-1010)
State - Yes, and the State Commission voted to use the adjusted data (HB 20-1010)
Counties - Yes (SB 02-007)
School Boards - Yes (HB 04-1230)
State, Federal Counts at the facility location
Connecticut SB 753 (2021) Public Act No. 21-13 No Yes County government doesn't exist in Conn. Yes No State - Yes
Cities/Towns - Yes
State, Federal Counts at-large. All people serving LWOP are counted at the location of the facility regardless of their home address.
Delaware HB 384 (2010) Del. Code Ann. tit. 29 § 804A N/A Yes No No No Congressional - Yes (HB 384)
State - Yes (HB 384)
State, Federal Counts at-large
Illinois HB 3653 (2021) Public Act No. 101-0652 No Yes No No No State - Yes (HB 3653) State, Federal Counts at-large
Maryland HB46/SB400 (2010) Md. Code Ann. Elec. Law § 8-701, and Md. Code Ann. State Gov't § 2-2A-01 and Md. Code Ann. Local Gov't § 1-1307 Yes Yes Yes Yes No Congressional - Yes
State - Yes
Counties - Yes
Cities/Towns - Yes
State, Federal Counts at the facility location
Michigan These sections were last amended by acts in 1966. Mich. Comp. Laws § 46.404(g)
Mich. Comp. Laws § 117.27a(5)
No No Yes Yes No Counties - Yes (except fails to address federal facilities) (§ 46.404(g))
Cities/Towns - Yes (except fails to address federal) (§ 117.27a(5))
State N/A
Nevada AB 450 (2019) Nev. Rev. Stat. § 218B.080 and § 218B.105; §§ 218B at 218B.010 and 218B.050; § 209 at 209.131; § 304 at 304.065 and 304.060; and § 396 at 396.0414 and 396.031. Yes Yes No No Board of Regents (higher ed.) Congressional - Yes
State - Yes
School Boards - Yes, but as to Board of Regents only
State Not specified by statute
New Jersey S758 (2020)
A698/S3964 (2021)
N.J. Stat. Ann. § 18A:13-8 (see also Board v. New Jersey, 372 N.J. Super. 341, 858 A.2d 576 (2004)), and § 52:4-1.1, § 52:4-1.2, § 52:4-1.3, § 52:4-1.4, and § 52:4-1.5 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Congressional - Yes (A698/S3964)
State - Yes (S758)
County - Yes (A698/S3964)
City/Town - Yes (A698/S3964)
School Boards - Yes (A698/S3964)
State, Federal Counts at-large
New York Part XX of the revenue budget (A9710D/S6610C) and technical amendment, A11597/S8415 (enacted in 2010) N.Y. Correct. Law Section 71(8), adding N.Y. Legis. Law Section 83-m(13), and N.Y. Mun. Home Rule Law Section 10 (13) No Yes Yes Yes No State - Yes
Counties - Yes
Cities/Towns - Yes
State, Federal Counts at-large (all people in federal facilities are counted at-large)
Tennessee SB1811/HB2053 (2016) Tenn. Code Ann. § 5-1-111 No No Yes No No Counties - No (explicitly permitted, but not required) All correctional institutions N/A
Virginia HB 1339 (2013)
HB 1255/SB 717 (2020)
Va. Code Ann. § 24.2-304.04, § 24.2-314, § 53.1-52, § 24.2-304.1, § 30-265, and § 53.1-10 Yes Yes Yes Yes No Congressional - Yes (HB 1255/SB 717)
State - Yes (HB 1255/SB 717)
Counties - Yes (HB 1255/SB 717)
Cities/Towns - Yes (HB 1255/SB 717)
State, Federal, and Local Counts at the facility location
Washington SB 5287 (2019) Wash. Rev. Code § 44.05.140 and § 4.05.090. Yes Yes No No No Congressional - Yes
State - Yes
State adult, Juvenile Counts at the facility location

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